Daily Current Affairs

Prelims Prominence - August 10, 2017

Environment

2ND Commitment Period (2013-20) of the Kyoto Protocol – Ratified by India

  • The Kyoto Protocol (or Doha Amendment) that commits countries to contain the emission of greenhouse gases (GHGs) its 2nd commitment has been ratified by India.
  • India deposited its Instrument of Acceptance of the Doha Amendment to the Kyoto Protocol.
  • With this, India became the 80th country to accept the amendment relating to the second commitment period (2013- 2020) of the Kyoto Protocol.

Enlighten about Kyoto Protocol

  • It is an international GHGs emissions reduction treaty linked to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC).
  • It commits its Parties by setting internationally binding GHGs emission reduction targets.
  • It was adopted in Kyoto, Japan, in December 1997 and entered into force in February 2005.
  • The protocol is based on principle of equity and Common but differentiated responsibilities and respective capabilities (CBDR).
  • It places obligations on developed nations to undertake mitigation targets to reduce emissions and provide financial resources and technology to developing nations.
  • Developing countries like India have no mandatory mitigation obligations or targets under the Kyoto Protocol.
  • The first commitment period under the Kyoto Protocol was from 2008-2012.
  • The second commitment period of the Kyoto Protocol or Doha Amendment for 2013-2020 period was adopted in 2012.

Namami Gange Jagriti Yatra

  • Launched by – Uttar Pradesh govt.
  • It is an – awareness drive along the bank of Ganga river to maintain cleanliness
  • Launched from - Lucknow

Enlighten about the yatra -

  • Organised by Uttar Pradesh Homeguard volunteers to spread awareness in 25 districts situated on the banks of river Ganga for maintaining the cleanliness and ever-flowing nature of the river.
  • It will pass through 108 blocks of 25 districts of UP from Bijnore to Ballia along Ganga covering around 1,025 kms.
  • Under it, above one lakh Homeguard volunteers will organise public gathering and other awareness programmes in the district under Namami Gange Project.
  • It will urge people to refrain from practices and other things that pollute the Ganga River.

Social Security

Global Retirement Index (GRI) -2017

  • India ranked last – 43rd position
  • The index ranks 43 countries on the basis of four factors viz. the material means to live comfortably in retirement (Material Well-being); access to quality health services (Health); access to quality financial services to help preserve savings value and maximize income (Finances) and a clean and safe environment (Quality of Life ).
  • The 43 countries include members of the Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD), International Monetary Fund (IMF) advanced economies and the BRIC countries (Brazil, Russia, India and China).
  • Top three countries in 2017 GRI are Norway, Switzerland and Iceland.
  • India ranks 43rd and has the same score compared to 2016 GRI. India also ranks the lowest among the BRIC economies.
  • India has the lowest income per capita of all countries in the GRI. Additionally, its score for the income equality indicator has declined compared to 2016 GRI. It has the lowest scores for all indicators within the sub-index including in insured health expenditure compared to 2016 GRI.
  • India ranks first in old-age dependency, second in tax pressure and sixth in interest rates. Interms of governance indicator India ranks as the fifth worst among all countries in the GRI. It also has the tenth-lowest score for the bank non-performing loans indicator. India ranked last in the Quality of Life sub-index.

Ministry Of Shipping

Logistics Data Bank (LDB) – expansion to South India

  • Planning to expand Logistics Data Bank (LDB) project to the country’s southern region by the Ministry of shipping.
  • So far, it had covered only the western logistics corridor.
  • The LDB project was launched at the Jawaharlal Nehru Port (JNPT), Mumbai in July 2016, making JNPT the first port in India to provide this service. Later its operations were expanded to the container terminals at Adani Port Special Economic Zone (APSEZ), Mundra and Adani Hazira Port — both in Gujarat.

Enlighten about Logistics Data Bank (LDB) project

  • To make India’s logistics sector more efficient through the use of Information Technology the LDB project was unveiled in July 2016
  • Under this project, every container in the port facility is attached to a Radio Frequency Identification Tag (RFID) tag and then tracked through RFID readers.
  • Going to be implemented through a Special Purpose Vehicle (SPV) called Delhi Mumbai Industrial Corridor Development Corporation Logistics Data Services Ltd. (DLDSL). DLDSL is jointly (50:50) owned by the Delhi Mumbai Industrial Corridor (DMIC) Trust and Japanese IT services major NEC Corporation.
  • The LDB project covers the entire movement of containers through rail or road till the Inland Container Depot and Container Freight Station. Its service integrates information available with the agencies across the supply chain to provide detailed, real-time information within a single window.

Benefits -

  • It has helped to cut the overall lead time of container movement as well as reduced transaction costs that consignees and shippers incur.
  • It also has aided importers and exporters in tracking their goods in transit.
  • It is billed as a major ‘ease of doing business’ initiative aimed at boosting India’s foreign trade and ensuring greater transparency.

Internal Security

National Cyber Coordination Centre (NCCC)

  • The first phase of National Cyber Coordination Centre (NCCC) has become operational
  • The Union Ministry of Electronics and Information Technology (MEITY) has announced the same

Why Needed -

  • To scan the country’s web traffic
  • To detect cyber security threats.
  • It scans the cyberspace in the country for cyber security threats at metadata level to generate situational awareness.

Enlighten about NCCC

  • NCCC is a multi-stakeholder cyber-security and e-surveillance agency implemented by Indian Computer Emergency Response Team (CERT-In), Union Ministry of Electronics and Information Technology.
  • It derives its powers as per provisions of section 69B of the Information Technology Act, 2000 and the Rules notified thereunder.
  • It will be India’s first layer for cyber threat monitoring and all communication with government and private service providers will be monitored by it.
  • Its mandate is to scan internet traffic and communication metadata coming into the country to detect real-time cyber threat and alert various organisations as well as internet service providers (ISPs) for timely action.
  • NCCC also will coordinate between intelligence agencies, specifically during network intrusions and cyber-attacks.
  • It will have virtual contact with the control room of all ISPs to scan traffic within the country, flowing at the point of entry and exit, including international gateway.
  • Apart from monitoring the Internet, the NCCC will also look into various threats posed by cyber-attacks. It will have top experts from the cyber security field and will run like similar organisation in other countries such as the US, the UK, France, Germany, etc

Science & Technology

Hyperspectral Imaging Satellite (HySIS)

  • WHAT IT IS - Earth observation (EO) satellite
  • TO BE LAUNCHED BY - The Indian Space Research Organisation (ISRO).
  • The HySIS satellite has critical chip called an “optical imaging detector array’” indigenously developed by ISRO. Its launch will allow ISRO to enter the domain of operational hyperspectral imaging from earth orbit.

Hyperspectral Imaging

  • Hyperspectral imaging or hyspex imaging (imaging spectroscopy) combines the power of digital imaging and spectroscopy.
  • It collects and processes information from across the electromagnetic spectrum.
  • Hyspex’ imaging enables distinct identification of objects, materials or processes on Earth by reading the spectrum for each pixel of a scene from space.
  • The hyspex technology is still an evolving science.
  • In recent times, it has become trend that is being experimented globally. It has ability to add a new dimension to plain-vanilla optical imagers.

Enlighten about HySIS satellite

  • HySIS satellite developed by ISRO can see in 55 spectral or colour bands from 630 km above ground.
  • It can be used for a range of applications from monitoring the environment, crops, looking for oil and minerals, military surveillance.
  • The architecture of the optical imaging detector array chip on board of satellite has been designed by the payloads development centre, Space Applications Centre, Ahmedabad. It was manufactured at ISRO’s electronics arm, the Semi-Conductor Laboratory, Chandigarh. It can read upto 1000 x 66 pixels.