Daily Current Affairs

Prelims Prominence - August 23, 2018

Appointments

Appointment of Governors of Seven States by President Ram Nath Kovind

What

  • Governors of seven states - Bihar, Haryana, Uttarakhand Jammu and Kashmir, Sikkim, Meghalaya, and Tripura
  • Appointment of the governors by the President i.e exercising his authority under Article 156.

Enlighten about New Governors

1. Satya Pal Malik:

  • He is former Governor of Bihar who was transferred to Jammu and Kashmir (J&K).
  • He succeeds N Vohra, who ha been serving this post since 2008

2. Lal Ji Tandon:

  • Appointed as new Governor of Bihar.

3. Ganga Prasad:

  • He was appointed as the new Governor of Sikkim.
  • He is former Governor of Meghalaya.

4. Tathagata Roy:

  • He was transferred as new Governor of Meghalaya.
  • He was earlier the Governor of Tripura.

5. Kaptan Singh Solanki:

  • He was appointed as new Governor of Tripura.

6. Satyadev Narayan Arya:

  • He was appointed as the new Governor of Haryana

7. Baby Rani Maurya:

  • She has been made the new Governor of Uttarakhand.

Constitutional provisions of Governor Article 153

  • The article states that there shall be Governor for each state.
  • The Constitutional Amendment Act, 1956 facilitated appointment of the same person as governor for two or more states.
  • Article 156: It says that Governor is appointed by President of India for a term of five years (But Governor usually holds office during pleasure of President.

Women and Child Development

Nation Nutrition Month – September 2018

Implementing Ministry

  • Union Ministry of Women and Child Development
  • The concerned ministry has announced to observe September 2018 as the Nation Nutrition Month

Objective

  • It has been implemented with an aim of reaching every household wit message of nutrition — ‘har ghar poshan tyohar’ (ever house a celebration of nutrition).

Enlighten about National Nutrition Month

  • It will promote antenatal care, breastfeeding, fight anaemia, convey message about importance of nutrition for girls and right age of marriage, delivery messages about importance of growth monitoring and also promote hygiene and sanitation.

Concerned Ministry

  • It will be jointly organised by NITI Ayog, Ministries of Women and Child Development (WCD), Health and Family Welfare, Panchayati Ra Rural Development, Drinking Water and Sanitation, Housing and Urba Affairs, Human Resources Development (HRD), Information and Broadcasting Consumer Affairs, Food and Public Distribution, Tribal Affairs, Minority Affairs and AYUSH.

Statics of Malnutrition of malnutrition.

  • According to National Famiy Health Survey-4 (NFHS-4), 38.% of India’s children aged less than 5 years a stunted (less height for their age), 21% are wasted (less weight for the height) and 35.7% are underweight.
  • Between 2005-06 (when NFHS-3 was conducted) and 2015-16 (when NFHS-4 was conducted) the percentage wasted children went up from 19.8% to 21% and percentage of severe wasted children went up from 6.4% to 7.5%.
  • India also ranks low 100th out of 119 countries on 2017 Global Hunger Index (GHI) and was placed at high end of “serious” category in GHI severity scale, owing mainly to fact that one every five children under age 5 is “wasted”

Disaster Management

Accept 700 cr. UAE offer or compensate us, says Kerala 2016 plan which allows taking voluntary aid from other nations

2016 National Disaster Management Plan (NDMP)

What

  • The Kerala government has asked the Centre to go by the 2016 National Disaster Management Plan (NDMP) while taking a call on the UAE government’s offer of 700 crore in assistance or compensate the State for the loss of such a hefty sum.
  • The National Disaster Management Plan, brought out by the Central government in May 2016, does state clearly that any voluntary offer of assistance from other countries can be accepted

Enlighten about the rule

  • The relevant section of the chapter on ‘International Cooperation’ of the NDMP reads: “As a matter of policy, the Government of India does not issue any appeal for foreign assistance in the wake of a disaster.
  • However, if the national government of another country voluntarily offers assistance as a goodwill gesture in solidarity with the disaster victims, the Central Government may accept the offer.
  • The Ministry of Home Affairs, Government of India, is required to coordinate with the Ministry of External Affairs, which is primarily responsible for reviewing foreign offers of assistance and channelising the same.
  • In consultation with the State Government concerned, the MHA will assess the response requirements that the foreign teams can provide.”

Enlighten about The National Disaster Management Plan (NDMP) was released in 2016.

  • The National Disaster Management Plan (NDMP) is prepared by the National Disaster Management Authority.
  • National Disaster Management Authority, abbreviated as NDMA is an agency of the Ministry of Home Affairs whose primary purpose is to coordinate response to natural or man-made disasters and for capacity-building in disaster resiliency and crisis response in India. NDMA was established through the Disaster Management Act enacted by the Government of India on May 30, 2005.
  • The NATIONAL DISASTER MANAGEMENT PLAN (NDMP) is based on the Sendai Framework for Disaster Risk Reduction 2015-2030.
  • Sendai Framework is a non-binding agreement, which the signatory nations will attempt to comply with on a voluntary basis

The four priorities for action under the Sendai Framework are:

  • Understanding disaster risk
  • Strengthening disaster risk governance to manage disaster risk
  • Investing in disaster risk reduction for resilience
  • Enhancing disaster preparedness for effective response and to “Build Back Better” in recovery, rehabilitation and reconstruction

Science and Technology

Data from ISRO's Chandrayaan-I confirms ice presence on Moon, says NASA

What

  • Scientists have confirmed the presence of frozen water deposits in the darkest and coldest parts of the Moon's polar regions using data from the Chandrayaan-I spacecraft, that was launched by India 10 years ago

Enlighten about the data published by NASA

  • With enough ice sitting at the surface -- within the top few millimetres -- water would possibly be accessible as a resource for future expeditions to explore and even stay on the Moon, and potentially easier to access than the water detected beneath the Moon's surface.
  • The ice deposits are patchily distributed and could possibly be ancient, according to the study published in the journal PNAS.
  • At the southern pole, most of the ice is concentrated at lunar craters, while the northern pole's ice is more widely, but sparsely spread.
  • Scientists used data from NASA's Moon Mineralogy Mapper (M3) instrument to identify three specific signatures that definitively prove there is water ice at the surface of the Moon.

Enlighten about Chandrayaan -1

  • M3, aboard the Chandrayaan-1 spacecraft, launched in 2008 by the Indian Space Research Organisation (ISRO), was uniquely equipped to confirm the presence of solid ice on the Moon.
  • It collected data that not only picked up the reflective properties we would expect from ice, but was able to directly measure the distinctive way its molecules absorb infrared light, so it can differentiate between liquid water or vapour and solid ice.
  • Most of the newfound water ice lies in the shadows of craters near the poles, where the warmest temperatures never reach above minus 156 degrees Celsius.
  • Due to the very small tilt of the Moon's rotation axis, sunlight never reaches these regions.
  • Previous observations indirectly found possible signs of surface ice at the lunar south pole, but these could have been explained by other phenomena, such as unusually reflective lunar soil.
  • Learning more about this ice, how it got there, and how it interacts with the larger lunar environment will be a key mission focus for NASA and commercial partners, as humans endeavour to return to and explore the Moon.
  • NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory designed and built the moon mineralogy mapper instrument and was home to its project manager.
  • The Chandrayaan-I spacecraft, India's first lunar probe, started suffering from several technical issues and stopped sending radio signals on August 28, 2009.
  • The probe, which was intended to operate for two years, achieved 95 per cent of its planned objectives in under a year of its space journey.
  • In 2016, NASA used ground-based radar systems to relocate Chandrayaan-1 in its lunar orbit. Repeated observations over the next three months allowed a precise determination of its current orbit.

Sources – The Hindu , PIB , Live Mint