Daily Current Affairs

Prelims Prominence - May 28, 2018

Department of Youth Affairs

Nehru Yuva Kendra Sangathan (NYKS)

NYKS working all over the Country to develop the personality of the youth and to engage them in nation-building activities. Some significant initiatives/ achievements of NYKS are as follows

1. Indradhanush Programme - 52,317children were immunized with the help of service providers.
2. National Unity Day and Run for Unity Programme was conducted by district Nehru Yuva Kendras in India wherein 2.5 lakh youth were involved.
3. Constitution Day and Quami Ekta Diwas and Pakhwada observed across India by district Nehru Yuva Kendras.
4. Delhi Slum Andolan - ''Social Building and developing less serviced Urban Area/Slums of Delhi ensuring youth participation'' is being carried out in Delhi. 12 Slum Yuva Dauds, preparatory meetings & launching function of Slum Yuva Andolan have been conducted in Delhi.

Rajiv Gandhi National Institute of Youth Development (RGNIYD)

  • RGNIYD, located at Sriperimbudur (Tamilnadu), is a premier institution for training, research, extension and outreach initiatives on youth issues.
  • RGNIYD has been declared as an “Institute of National Importance” through enactment of RGNIYD Act, 2012.

Some significant initiatives/ achievements of RGNIYD during the year are as follows:

1. RGNIYD brought out the India Youth Development Index and Report 2017 which is a pioneering attempt made by the Institute in 2010 and followed it up with the India Youth Development Index in 2017.
2. Embryonic Social Business Incubation Centre is being set up by RGNIYD.
3. Centre for GIS in Good Governance sponsored by IISR/ISRO is set up in RGNIYD through which Diploma in Political Leadership will be offered.
4. RGNIYD has signed a MoU with the Training and Research Wing of the Election Commission of India, India International Institute of Democracy & Election Management (IIIDEM) promote Voter Education among Youth
5. RGNIYD has signed a MoU with the National Council of Rural Institutes (NCRI) an institution functioning under the Union Ministry of Human Resource Development, Government of India

Strengthening of NYKS and NSS

  • A Project on “Strengthening of NYKS and NSS” is being implemented in collaboration with UNDP/ UNV. The Project is to be implemented over 4-year period at a total cost of about Rs.14 crores. The Project manpower has been recruited, trained and deployed in the field. The implementation of the Project is going in full swing.

National Programme for Youth and Adolescent Development (NPYAD)

  • NPYAD is an umbrella scheme for providing support to Government/ non-Government organisations for undertaking activities for adolescent and the youth. Some significant achievements of NPYAD are as under

1. The 5th North East Youth Festival was organised at Gangtok, Sikkim from 28th October to 30thOctober, 2017.

National Young Leaders Programme (NYLP)

  • In pursuance to the Budget announcement during 2014-15, a new Scheme, namely, ‘National Young Leaders Programme (NYLP)’ was launched in December, 2014 in order to develop leadership qualities among the youth. Some significant achivements during the year are as follows

1. Neighbourhood Youth Parliament Programmes are being organized by involving NYKS-affiliated Youth Clubs with the objective of developing leadership qualities of the youth by involving them in debate/ discussions on contemporary issues.
2. Youth for Development: The Programme is being organized, to develop leadership qualities of the youth by involving them in Shramadaan activities. Awards are given to youth clubs doing outstanding work.

Youth Hostels

  • Youth Hostels are built to promote youth travel and to enable the young people experience the rich cultural heritage of the country. The construction of the Youth Hostels is a joint venture of the Central and State Governments.

Social Justice & Empowerment

RAJKOT SAMAJIK ADHIKARITA SHIVIR

  • Guinness Book of World Record was created in the category of highest ever participation of 1442 persons with hearing impairment in a sign language lesson at a single venue while performing our National Anthem.
  • Previously, such a record was hold by Taiwan (China) with participation of 978 persons with hearing impairment.
  • The participants of this historic record repeated their performance in the presence of Prime Minister.
  • Second Guinness World Record was created in the category of highest number of Orthosis (Calipers) fitted to 781 mobility impaired persons on a single day.

Unique Disability Identification (Udid) Project In Process

  • The Department is in the process of implementing UDID Project with a view to creating a national data-base for Persons with Disabilities and also to issue unique ID card to every one of them.

President Presents “National Awards For Empowerment Of Persons With Disabilities -2017

  • On International Day of Persons with Disabilities i.e. 3rd December the Department of Empowerment of Persons with Disabilities (Divyangjan), Ministry of Social Justice and Empowerment presents National Awards on Individuals, Institutions, Organisations, State/District etc for their outstanding achievements and work done towards empowerment of Persons with Disabilities.

Accessible India Campaign (Aic) -Important Achievements /Milestones Of The Campaign

  • Accessible India Campaign was launched on December 3, 2015 to achieve universal accessibility for persons with Disabilities in Built Environment, Transport systems, and Information & Communication Technology eco system.
  • So far, Access Audit of 1662 buildings in 50 cities has been completed by the auditors.
  • All 34 International Airports and all 48 Domestic Airports have been provided with accessible features.
  • 917 identified websites of State Governments/UTs are in the process of being made accessible through ERNET India.

Other Achievements Of Depwd

  • The National Trust, in collaboration with Child Neurology Division, Department of Pediatrics, AIIMS, New Delhi organized the 2nd three-day Workshop for Training Master Trainers in Autism Tools-INCLEN & ISAA.
  • A two-day National Conference on “Empowering Deaf through Indian Sign Language” was by Indian Sign Language Research and Training Centre (ISLRTC), an autonomous organization under the Department
  • The National Trust organized National Conference on Down Syndrome at Pravasi Bhartiya Kendra, in relation to the world Autism Day.
  • The National IT Challenge for Youth with Disability in the age group of 13-19 years in the category of visual impairment, hearing impairment, locomotor disability and development disability was held in collaboration with National Institute of Technology, Kurukshetra.
  • The winners of this competition have been nominated to participate in the Global IT Challenge, 2017 to be held at Hanoi, Vietnam
  • The Global IT Challenge for Youth with Disabilities is organised by Korean Society for Rehabilitation of Persons with Disabilities every year in the Asia-Pacific countries on rotation basis.
  • To popularize the Inclusive India initiative in the country, the National Trust organized an ‘Inclusive India Summit 2017’
  • The objective of the summit was to bring together leaders from diverse sectors of the country and seek their commitment in changing India into an inclusive nation for Persons with Intellectual and Developmental Disabilities (PwIDDs).
  • The Rehabilitation Council of India (RCI) in collaboration with the National Institute for Empowerment of Persons with Multiple Disabilities (NIEPMD) organized an All India Course Coordination Meet – AICCM

Ministry of Health and Family Welfare

Enlighten about NHP

National Health Policy 2017

  • The year 2017 saw the release of a new National Health Policy of the country after a gap of 15 years.
  • The major commitment of the NHP 2017 is raising public health expenditure progressively to 2.5% of the GDP by 2025.
  • It envisages providing larger package of assured comprehensive primary healthcare through the Health and Wellness Centres.
  • The Policy aims to attain the highest possible level of health and well-being for all at all ages through a preventive and promotive healthcare and universal access to quality health services without anyone having to face financial hardship as a consequence.
  • This would be achieved through increasing access, improving quality and lowering the cost of healthcare delivery.
  • NHP 2017 advocates allocating major proportion (two-thirds or more) of resources to primary care and aims to ensure availability of two beds per 1,000 population distributed in a manner to enable access within golden hour.
  • The Policy also takes a fresh look at strategic purchase from the private sector and leveraging their strengths to achieve national health goals and seeks stronger partnership with the private sector.

Highlights of the Policy are as following

1. Assurance based approach - The Policy advocates progressively incremental assurance based approach with focus on preventive and promotive healthcare
2. Health Card linked to health facilities- The Policy recommends linking the health card to primary care facility for a defined package of services anywhere in the country.
3. Patient Centric Approach- The Policy recommends the setting up of a separate, empowered medical tribunal for speedy resolution to address disputes /complaints regarding standards of care, prices of services, negligence and unfair practices, standard regulatory framework for laboratories and imaging centers, specialized emerging services, etc
4. Micronutrient Deficiency- There is a focus on reducing micronutrient malnourishment and systematic approach to address heterogeneity in micronutrient adequacy across regions.
5. Quality of Care- Public hospitals and facilities would undergo periodic measurements and certification of level of quality. Focus on Standard Regulatory Framework to eliminate risks of inappropriate care by maintaining adequate standards of diagnosis and treatment.
6. Make-in-India Initiative- The Policy advocates the need to incentivize local manufacturing to provide customized indigenous products for Indian population in the long run.
7. Application of Digital Health- The Policy advocates extensive deployment of digital tools for improving the efficiency and outcome of the healthcare system and aims at an integrated health information system which serves the needs of all stake-holders and improves efficiency, transparency, and citizen experience.
8. Private sector engagement for strategic purchase for critical gap filling and for achievement of health goals.

National Medical Commission Bill, 2017

  • Cabinet approved the National Medical Commission Bill 2017 on 15th December, 2017

The Bill envisages to:

  • replace the Medical Council 1956 Act.
  • enable a forward movement in the area of medical education reform.
  • move towards outcome based regulation of medical education rather than process oriented regulation.
  • End of heavy handed regulatory control over medical education institutions and a shift towards outcome based monitoring.
  • Introduction of a national licentiate examination. This will be the first time such a provision is being introduced in any field of higher education in the country, as was the introduction of NEET and common counselling earlier.
  • Better coordination with AYUSH systems of treatment.
  • Regulation of up to 40% seats in medical colleges to enable all meritorious students to have access to medical seats irrespective of their financial status.

National Nutrition Mission (Nnm)

  • The Cabinet has recently approved the National Nutrition Mission, a joint effort of MoHFW and the Ministry of Women and Child development (WCD) towards a life cycle approach for interrupting the intergenerational cycle of under nutrition.
  • The impact of the mission is envisioned to reduce the level of stunting, under-nutrition, anemia and low birth weight babies..
  • The mission aims to benefit more than 10 crore people.
  • It shall be launched in December, 2017.
  • Introducing a very robust convergence mechanism
  • ICT-based real time monitoring system
  • Incentivizing States/UTs for meeting the targets
  • Incentivizing Anganwadi Workers (AWWs) for using IT based tools
  • Eliminating registers used by AWWs
  • Introducing measurement of height of children at the Anganwadi Centres (AWCs)
  • Social Audits
  • Setting-up Nutrition Resource Centres, involving masses through Jan Andolan for their participation on nutrition through various activities, among others.

Mental Healthcare Act, 2017

  • The Act adopts a rights-based statutory framework for mental health in India and strengthens equality and equity in provision of mental healthcare services in order to protect the rights of people with mental health problem to ensure that they are able to receive optimum care and are able to live a life of dignity and respect.
  • The Act strengthens the institutional mechanisms for improving access quality and appropriate mental healthcare services.
  • The Act increases accountability of both government and private sectors in delivery of mental healthcare with representation of persons with mental health problem and their care-givers in statutory authorities such as Central and State Mental Health Authority.
  • The most progressive features of the Act are provision of advance directive, nominated representative, special clause for women and children related to admission, treatment, sanitation and personal hygiene; restriction on use of Electro-Convulsive Therapy and Psychosurgery.
  • Decriminalization of suicide is another significant facet of the Act, which will ensure proper management of severe stress as a precursor for suicide attempts.

HIV & AIDS (Prevention & Control) Act, 2017

  • It aims to end the epidemic by 2030 in accordance with the Sustainable Development Goals set by the United Nations.
  • A person living with AIDS cannot be treated unfairly at employment, educational establishments, renting a property, standing for public or private office or providing healthcare and insurance services
  • The Act also aims to enhance access to healthcare services by ensuring informed consent and confidentiality for HIV-related testing, treatment and clinical research.
  • Every HIV infected or affected person below the age of 18 years has the right to reside in a shared household and enjoy the facilities of the household.
  • The Act prohibits any individual from publishing information or advocating feelings of hatred against HIV positive persons and those living with them.
  • No person shall be compelled to disclose his/her HIV status except with their informed consent, and if required by a court order.
  • Every person in the care and custody of the State shall have right to HIV prevention, testing, treatment and counseling services.
  • The Act suggests that cases relating to HIV positive persons shall be disposed' off by the court on a priority basis and duly ensuring the confidentiality.

Universal Immunization Programme (UIP)

New initiatives under UIP:

  • Mission Indradhanush: Government of India has launched Mission Indradhanush (MI) in December 2014, a targeted programme to immunize children who have either not received vaccines or are partially vaccinated. The activity focuses on districts with maximum number of missed children. Four phases of Mission Indradhanush have been completed
  • Intensified Mission Indradhanush (IMI) - where immunization coverage has been very low in spite of repeated phases of Mission Indradhanush and in UIP, with an aim to rapidly build up full immunization coverage to more than 90% by December 2018.

Introduction of new vaccines

  • Inactivated Polio Vaccine (IPV)
  • Adult Japanese Encephalitis (JE) Vaccine: Japanese Encephalitis is a life threatening viral disease affecting brain mainly in children aged less than 15 years.
  • However, National Vector Borne Disease Control Programme (NVBDCP) had identified 31 high burden districts from Assam, Uttar Pradesh and West Bengal for adult JE vaccination in the age-group of 15- 65 years.
  • Rotavirus Vaccine: Rotavirus is one of the leading causes of severe diarrhoea and death among young children. At present, Rotavirus vaccine has been introduced in 9 States - Andhra Pradesh, Haryana, Himachal Pradesh, Odisha, Madhya Pradesh, Assam, Rajasthan, Tamil Nadu and Tripura
  • Measles-Rubella (MR) Vaccine: Rubella vaccine has been introduced in UIP as Measles-Rubella vaccine to provide protection against congenital birth defects caused by Rubella infection. The vaccine is being introduced in a phased manner as MR campaign. MR vaccine has been introduced in routine immunization in these States/UTs as two doses at 9-12 months and 16-24 months.
  • Pneumococcal Vaccine (PCV): PCV was launched in a phased manner in UIP in May’17 for reducing infant mortality and morbidity caused by pneumococcal pneumonia

Pradhan Mantri Surakshit Matritva Abhiyan (Pmsma)

  • The program aims to provide assured, comprehensive and quality antenatal care, free of cost, universally to all pregnant women on the 9th of every month.

Intensified Diarrhea Control Fortnight (Idcf)

  • Observed during July-August every year since 2014 with the ultimate aim of ‘zero child deaths due to childhood diarrhea’.

Rashtriya Bal Swasthya Karyakram (Rbsk)

  • Launched in February 2013 for child screening and free treatment for 4 Ds i.e. Defects at birth, Diseases, Deficiencies and Development delays including disability.

National Deworming Day (Ndd)

  • To combat STH infections, the Health Ministry has adopted a single day strategy called NDD, wherein single dose of albendazole is administered to children from 1-19 years of age group through the platform of schools and anganwadi centres.

Rashtriya Kishor Swasthya Karyakram (Rksk)

  • Started in 2014 as a comprehensive programme focusing on Sexual Reproductive Health, Nutrition, Injuries and violence (including gender based violence), Non-Communicable Diseases, Mental Health and Substance Misuse with a promotive and preventive approach.
  • The interventions are carried out using health facilities, community and schools as platforms-
  • Adolescent Friendly Health Clinics (AFHCs): These act as the first level of contact of primary health care services with adolescents
  • Weekly Iron Folic Acid Supplementation (WIFS) Programme: It entails provision of weekly supervised IFA tablets to in-school boys and girls and out-of-school girls and biannual albendazole tablets, besides Nutrition & Health Education.
  • Menstrual Hygiene Scheme: The scheme is being implemented for adolescent girls in the rural areas. From 2014 procurement of sanitary napkins has been decentralized. Eight states are implementing the scheme through State funds.
  • Peer Education Programme: Under the programme four peer educators (Saathiya) - two male and two female are selected per 1000 population to orient the adolescents on health issues.

Mission Parivar Vikas (Mpv)

  • Launched in 146 districts of 7 States for substantially increasing the access to contraceptives and family planning services in districts with TFR of 3 and above.
  • MPV encompasses the following gamut of activities
  • Roll out of Injectable Contraceptives
  • Sterilization Compensation Scheme
  • Condom Boxes in public health facilities
  • MPV Campaigns and Saarthi (IEC vehicle)
  • Nayi Pehl Kits to the newly married couples
  • Saas Bahu Sammellan

Family Planning – Logistics Management Information System (Fp-Lmis)

  • Launched to strengthen the supply-chain management system.
  • The National training of trainers (ToT) has been completed.

Health And Wellness Centres (Hwcs)

  • In 2017-18, the Ministry announced transformation of Sub-health Centres to Health and Wellness Centres (HWCs) to expand the basket of services of primary care to make it comprehensive.
  • The HWCs are expected to provide preventive, promotive, rehabilitative and curative care for a package of services related to RMNCH+A, communicable diseases, non- communicable diseases, Ophthalmology, ENT, Dental, Mental, geriatric care, treatment for acute simple medical conditions and emergency & trauma services.

The indicative package of services envisaged is:

  • Care in pregnancy and child-birth.
  • Neonatal and infant health care services
  • Childhood and adolescent health care services.
  • Family planning, Contraceptive services and Other Reproductive Health Care services
  • Management of Communicable diseases: National Health Programmes
  • Management of Common Communicable Diseases and General Out-patient care for acute simple illnesses and minor ailments
  • Screening and Management of Non-Communicable diseases
  • Screening and Basic management of Mental health ailments
  • Care for Common Ophthalmic and ENT problems
  • Basic Dental health care
  • Geriatric and palliative health care services
  • Trauma Care (that can be managed at this level) and Emergency Medical Services
  • The H&WC will deliver comprehensive primary health care using a team based approach and would be led by a mid-level service provider with a primary health care team including ANMs, ASHAs, and AWWs, of the sub center area.

Pradhan Mantri National Dialysis Programme

  • ‘National Dialysis Programme’ to be supported in all district hospitals in a PPP mode under NHM;
  • Under NHM support is provided to States/UTs for provision of free dialysis services to the poor.

National Programme For Prevention And Control Of Cancer, Diabetes, Cardiovascular Diseases And Stroke (Npcdcs)

Population-Based Screening For Diabetes, Hypertension And Common Cancer (Oral, Breast And Cervical)

Integration Of Ayush With Npcdcs

  • For comprehensive management of lifestyle related disorders, a pilot project on ‘Integration of AYUSH with NPCDCS’ has been initiated in six districts in collaboration with the different Central Councils for AYUSH.

Amrit (Affordable Medicine And Reliable Implants For Treatment)

Revised National Tuberculosis Programme (Rntcp)

  • Since October 2017, entire country has been covered by the Daily Regimen Fixed Dose Combination Drugs.
  • CBNAAT machines have already been procured and are under installation currently.
  • The number of sites providing Bedaquiline has increased from 6 sites to 21 sites in 5 States.

National Programme For Control Of Blindness And Visual Impairment (Npcb&Vi)

  • The Ministry released the National Trachoma Survey Report (2014-17) in December, 2017.
  • The report declares India free from ‘infective trachoma’. The survey findings indicate that the active trachoma infection has been eliminated among children in all the survey districts with overall prevalence of only 0.7%, which is much below the elimination criteria of infective trachoma as defined by the WHO- active trachoma is considered eliminated if the prevalence of active infection among children below 10 years is less than 5%.
  • With this India met the goal of trachoma elimination as specified by the WHO under its GET2020 program and that trachoma is no longer a public health problem in India.

IT INITIATIVES

  • A case based web based reporting system called NIKSHAY is established and this has been scaled-up nationwide to capture all TB cases in the public health system.
  • For adherence monitoring 99DOTS has been implemented wherein the patient just has to give a missed call to a toll free number and the system captures the adherence information.

M-DIABETES

  • MoHFW has launched a mobile health initiative for the prevention and care of diabetes
  • mDiabetes will contribute to improving awareness about diabetes and promoting healthy diets and active lifestyle, which are vital to the prevention of diabetes.
  • Text messages were sent to 130 million mobile phone numbers using data base of individuals working in public enterprises across the country. A total of 107,548 responded and were registered.

MERA ASPATAAL

  • MoHFW has designed an ICT-based Patient Satisfaction System (PSS) for implementation in public and empanelled private hospitals.
  • The application has been named ‘मेरा अस्पताल’ (‘My Hospital’ in English).
  • A multi-channel approach i.e. web portal, mobile application, Short Message Service (SMS) and Interactive Voice Response System (IVRS) is being used to collect patients’ feedback.
  • The application automatically contacts the patient to collect information on patient’s experience in government hospitals.
  • ONLINE REGISTRATION SYSTEM (ORS) is a framework to link various hospitals for online registration, payment of fees and appointment, online diagnostic reports, enquiring availability of blood online etc.
  • SAFE DELIVERY APPLICATION - an mHealth tool that can be used for health workers who manage normal and complicated deliveries in the peripheral areas. The application has Clinical Instruction films on key obstetric procedures which can help the health workers translate their learnt skills into practice.

MOBILE APPS: Various mobile apps have been launched namely

  • Indradhanush Immunization (for immunisation tracker)
  • India Fights Dengue (enables a user to check Dengue Symptoms, get nearest Hospital / Blood bank information and also share feedback)
  • NHP Swasth Bharat (information dissemination on Disease, Lifestyle, First Aid)
  • NHP Directory Services Mobile App. (provides information related to Hospital and Blood banks across India have been hosted.
  • No More Tension Mobile App. (information on stress management related aspects)
  • Pradhan Mantri Surakshit Matritva Abhiyan (PMSMA) Mobile App. (for reporting pregnancy care related information from across states)

National Vector Borne Disease Control Programme (Nvbdcp)
Malaria

  • India is committed to malaria elimination by 2030 in response to the global call by WHO for eliminating malaria by the end of the year 2030.
  • In response to the above, India drafted National Framework for malaria elimination and was launched by HFM in February, 2016 which was followed by drafting of National Strategic Plan (NSP) for malaria elimination (2017-2022).
  • Both the above documents give clear vision as well as time bound strategies for malaria elimination by 2027.
  • After the call for malaria elimination, India strengthened its interventions by providing and increasing the outreach of malaria diagnosis by using Rapid Diagnostic Kits (for both Pv& Pf), effective anti-malarials like Artemisinine combinations, provision of Long Lasting Insecticidal Nets.

Japanese Encephalitis (JE)

  • Constitution of National Programme for Prevention and Control of JE/AES to reduce morbidity, mortality and disability due to JE/AES.
  • JE vaccination campaign in children (1-15 yrs) .
  • Adult vaccination (15-65 years).
  • States have been requested to make JE a Notifiable disease.

A notifiable disease is any disease that is required by law to be reported to government authorities. The collation of information allows the authorities to monitor the disease, and provides early warning of possible outbreaks.

Kala-Azar

  • Kala-azar is a notifiable disease in all four endemic states.
  • Single day single dose treatment with Liposomal Ambisome, is available for cases of visceral leishmaniasis, which has improved the treatment compliance and outcome.
  • Synthetic pyrethroid is used for indoor residual spraying, in all the endemic areas.

Sources – PIB, Ministry of Youth development, Ministry of Social Justic,Ministry of Women and child development, My Gov