Daily Current Affairs

Prelims Prominence - October 12, 2018

Factoids

Titli How cyclones are named

What

  • For a tropical cyclone with wind speeds that could reach up to 150 kmph and has forced the evacuation of three lakh people in the Odisha coastline, Titli -- meaning butterfly -- is a surprisingly delicate name.
  • Interestingly, in South East Asia cyclones are named by different countries in the region.
  • Tropical cyclone Titli was named by Pakistan.
  • Here’s a look at the names of some recent cyclones, the countries that named them, and names of future cyclones as well.

Index/Report

Global Hunger Index 2018 1 in 5 Indian children wasted Country’s ranking drops 3 places in the index for 2018

What

  • At least one in five Indian children under the age of five are ‘wasted,’ which means they have extremely low weight for their height, reflecting acute under-nutrition, according to the Global Hunger Index 2018.
  • The only country with a higher prevalence of child wasting is the war-torn nation of South Sudan

Connect to the Index

  • India has been ranked at 103 out of 119 countries in the Index, with hunger levels in the country categorised as “serious”.
  • India’s ranking has dropped three places from last year
  • The 2018 scores reflect data from 2013-2017.
  • Four main indicators are used to calculate hunger levels in the report, which is a peer-reviewed publication released annually by Welthungerhilfe and Concern Worldwide.
  • The International Food Policy Research Institute was also involved with the publication until this year.

Connect to the indicators

  • The first indicator is undernourishment, which is the share of the population which is undernourished and reflects insufficient caloric intake.
  • The next three indicators use data for children under five: child wasting (low weight for height), reflecting acute under-nutrition; child stunting (low height for age), reflecting chronic under-nutrition; and child mortality.
  • India has shown improvement in three of the indicators over the comparable reference years.
  • The percentage of undernourished people in the population has dropped from 18.2% in 2000 to 14.8% in 2018.
  • The child mortality rate has halved from 9.2% to 4.3%, while child stunting has dropped from 54.2% to 38.4% over the same period.

Increase in child wasting

  • However, the prevalence of child wasting has actually worsened in comparison to previous reference years.
  • It stood at 17.1% in 2000, and increased to 20% in 2005.

Science & Technology

Central University of Jammu signs MoU with ISRO to set up Space Applications Center

What

  • The Indian Space Research Organisation (ISRO) signed an MoU with the Central University of Jammu (CUJ) in Jammu

Why

  • For setting up of the Satish Dhawan Center for Space Science in the University
  • To develop scientific temper and generate interest in space research.
  • The Center will help in tapping potential of Space Applications for the region of J&K in various fields like disaster management, health, education, communication, weather forecasting, land use planning, etc.
  • The setting up of this Center will take care of the emerging Geospatial and Space Technology requirements for the development of the region.
  • The Satish Dhawan Centre for Space Science at CUJ will have facilities for Geospatial Data analysis that will help in sustainable use of natural resources and planning land-use pattern.
  • It will have ground-based observations for Atmospheric Studies, research lab for astrophysics, Atmospheric Sensing and Glacier studies Lab for better use of large quantity of water stored in the form of seasonal snow, ice and glaciers in the rivers of North India.
  • Apart from this, Disaster Management Center will also be set up here that would be able to take up research in the area of different disasters like flood, Landslides, forest fires, drought and climate change.

Defence

32nd India - Indonesia coordinated patrol (CORPAT)

What

  • Indian Naval Ship Kulish, a Kora class missile corvette entered Belawan harbour, Indonesia for the opening ceremony of the 32nd edition of India – Indonesia coordinated patrol (IND-INDO CORPAT), to be held from 11 – 27 Oct 2018.

Connect to CORPAT

  • The ships and aircraft from both the countries would undertake patrolling on the respective sides of 236 nautical miles long International Maritime Boundary Line.
  • The patrolling would be conducted in three phases from 14 – 24 Oct 2018 followed by a closing ceremony at Port Blair, Andaman and Nicobar Island, scheduled from 25 – 26 Oct 2018.
  • The visit seeks to emphasize India’s peaceful presence and solidarity with friendly countries towards ensuring good order in the maritime domain, consolidate interoperability and strengthen existing bonds of friendship between the two countries.
  • In addition, as part of the Hon’ble Prime Minister’s vision of SAGAR (Security and Growth for All in the Region), the Indian Navy has also been involved in assisting countries in the IOR with EEZ Surveillance, Search and Rescue, other capacity -building and capability-enhancement activities.
  • The current deployment will contribute towards the Indian Navy’s effort to forge strong bonds of friendship across the seas and consolidate inter-operability.

World Bank Report

World Bank’s Human Capital Index

What

  • The World Bank released today a Human Capital Index (HCI) as part of the World Development Report 2019.

Theme

  • Theme of the World Development Report (WDR) this year is “The Changing Nature of Work”.
  • As part of this report, the World Bank has launched a Human Capital Project (HCP).

Connect to HCP

  • The HCP programme is claimed to be a program of advocacy, measurement, and analytical work to raise awareness and increase demand for interventions to build human capital.
  • There are three components of HCP- a cross-country human capital measurement metric called the Human Capital Index (HCI), a programme of measurement and research to inform policy action, and a programme of support for country strategies to accelerate investment in human capital.
  • The HCI has been constructed for 157 countries.
  • It claims to seek to measure the amount of human capital that a child born today can expect to attain by age 18.
  • The HCI index values are contended to convey the productivity of the next generation of workers, compared to a benchmark of complete standard education and full health.

The HCI has three components:

  • Survival, as measured by under-5 mortality rates;
  • Expected years of Quality-Adjusted School which combines information on the quantity and quality of education (quality is measured by harmonizing test scores
  • Health environment using two proxies of (a) adult survival rates and (b) the rate of stunting for children under age 5.

Difference between HDI and HCI

  • UNDP constructs Human Development Index (HDI) for several years.
  • The HCI uses survival rates and stunting rate instead of life expectancy as measure of health, and quality-adjusted learning instead of merely years of schooling as measure of education.
  • HCI also excludes per capita income whereas the HDI uses it.
  • Two significant changes from HDI are exclusion of income component and introduction of quality adjustment in learning.
  • Exclusion of income element and introduction of quality adjustment makes HCI far less representative of Human Capital Development than the Index claims it to be.

How it measures the value (HCI)

  • The HCI measures the Index outcomes for each country as a fraction of maximum value of 1.
  • As expected the advanced economies such as North America and Europe mostly have HCI value of above 0.75, while South Asia and Sub Saharan Africa have the lowest HCI among the regions.
  • The HCI for India has been estimated at 0.44. The quality adjusted learning has been measured in case of India by using the data as old as 2009.

NITI Aayog

NITI Aayog's AIM & IBM India design First-of-its Kind Industry-tailored Student Internship Programme

What

  • NITI Aayog and IBM today announced a first-of-its-kind internship programme for students selected by Atal Innovation Mission (AIM).

Connect to the internship

  • The internship will see 38 students receive a two-week paid internship, and 14 teachers from Atal Tinkering Labs (ATL) across the length and breadth of the country including from states such as Assam, Himachal Pradesh, Andaman & Nicobar and others, to come together and ideate, collaborate and innovate.
  • These students will be equipped with the skills for new collar careers in areas like artificial intelligence, Internet-of-Things, cybersecurity, cloud computing and blockchain.
  • Apart from being trained in emerging technologies, students will also be coached in critical workplace skills.
  • As part of the program, select teachers from ATLs will also be trained by IBM volunteers and mentors to become innovation coaches.
  • The two-week program is designed so students can experience the corporate environment and gain exposure to new technologies.
  • To scale the programme, top-performing students are selected for industry exposure to strengthen their technical skills and prepare them for future jobs.
  • The Atal Innovation Mission conducted the Atal Tinkering Marathon in 2017 where Top 30 innovations across five focus areas - agritech, healthcare, smart mobility, clean energy, waste management, water management - were identified as the top innovations.

Sources – PIB , The Hindu , Indianexpress