Daily Current Affairs

Prelims Prominence - October 13, 2018

Human rights

National Human Rights Commission (NHRC)

What

  • 25th Foundation Day function of the National Human Rights Commission (NHRC).

Connect to NHRC

  • National Human Rights Commission (NHRC) of India is an autonomous public body constituted on 12 October 1993 under the Protection of Human Rights Ordinance of 28 September 1993.
  • It was given a statutory basis by the Protection of Human Rights Act, 1993 (TPHRA).
  • The NHRC is the National Human Rights Commission of India, responsible for the protection and promotion of human rights, defined by the Act as "rights relating to life, liberty, equality and dignity of the individual guaranteed by the Constitution or embodied in the International Covenants".
  • "Human Rights" means the rights related to life, liberty, equality and dignity of the individual guaranteed by the constitution or embodied in the International covenants and enforceable by courts in India.
  • "Commission" means the National Human Rights Commission constituted under section of All human beings are born free and equal in dignity and rights known as Human rights, as commonly understood, are the rights that every human being is entitled to enjoy freely irrespective of his religion, race, caste, sex and nationality

Human rights

  • Human right means different thing to different people.
  • Human Rights are not static, but are rather dynamic in nature. New rights are recognized and enforced from time to time.
  • Only persons fully conversant with the latest development about the expanding horizons of Human Rights can promote their awareness better

Composition The NHRC consists of

  • A Chairperson, should be retired Chief Justice of India (through GoI mulling appointment of retired SC Judges as chairperson)
  • One member who is, or has been, a Judge of the Supreme Court of India
  • One member who is, or has been, the Chief Justice of a High Court
  • Two members to be appointed from among persons having knowledge of, or practical experience in, matters relating to human rights
  • In addition, the Chairpersons of four National Commissions (Scheduled Castes, Scheduled Tribes, Women and Minorities) serve as ex officio members.
  • The sitting Judge of the Supreme Court or sitting Chief Justice of any High Court can be appointed only after the consultation with the Chief Justice of Supreme Court.

Ex-officio members

  • Chairperson, National Commission for Scheduled Castes Chairperson, National Commission for Scheduled Tribes

State Human Rights Commission

  • A State Government may constitute a body known as the Human Rights Commission of that State to exercise the powers conferred upon, and to perform the functions assigned to, a State Commission.

India wins election to UNHRC

What

  • India was elected to the ’ top human rights body for a period of three years beginning January 1, 2019, getting 188 votes in the Asia-Pacific category, the highest number of votes among all candidates.
  • The 193-member UN General Assembly held elections here for new members to the UN Human Rights Council.
  • The 18 new members were elected by absolute majority through a secret ballot. Countries needed a minimum of 97 votes to get elected to the Council.
  • In the Asia Pacific category, India got 188 votes followed by Fiji with 187 votes, Bangladesh 178, Bahrain and Philippines 165 each.
  • India had previously been elected to the Geneva-based Human Rights Council for the 2011-2014 and 2014-2017 terms.

Connect to UNHRC

  • The United Nations Human Rights Council (UNHRC) is a United Nations body whose mission is to promote and protect human rights around the world.
  • The UNHRC has 47 members elected for staggered three-year terms on a regional group basis.
  • The headquarters of UNHRC is in Geneva, Switzerland.
  • The UNHRC investigates allegations of breaches of human rights in UN member states, and addresses important thematic human rights issues such as freedom of association and assembly, freedom of expression, freedom of belief and religion, women's rights, LGBT rights, and the rights of racial and ethnic minorities.
  • The UNHRC was established by the UN General Assembly on March 15, 2006 (by resolution A/RES/60/251) to replace the UN Commission on Human Rights (UNCHR, herein CHR) that had been strongly criticised for allowing countries with poor human rights records to be members.

Reforms

National Policy on Electronics 2018’ (NPE 2018)

Implementing authority

  • Union Ministry of Electronics and Information Technology (MeitY)
  • MeitY has issued draft ‘National Policy on Electronics 2018’ (NPE 2018) for Electronics System Design and Manufacturing (ESDM) Sector of India.
  • It sets ambitious target of creating $400 billion electronics manufacturing industry by 2025, with mobile phone devices segment accounting for three fourths of production.

Connect to the Draft National Policy on Electronics (NPE)

  • It aims to promote domestic manufacturing in entire value-chain of ESDM sector for spur economic development in the country.
  • It also aims to double the target of mobile phone production from 500 million units in 2019 to 1 billion by 2025 to meet objective.

It will replace M-SIPS

  • It replaces existing incentive schemes like Modified Special Incentive Package Scheme (M-SIPS), with schemes that are easier to implement such as interest subsidy and credit default guarantee etc.
  • It also takes into consideration interest subsidy and credit default guarantee in order to encourage new units and in expansion of existing units in electronics manufacturing sector.
  • The set target of $400 billion turnover under it, includes targeted production of 1 billion mobile handsets by 2025, valued at $190 billion (approximately Rs. 13 lakh crore) and also 600 million
  • It also proposes to push development of core competencies in all sub-sectors of electronics including electronic components and semiconductors, automotive electronics, defence electronics, industrial electronics, strategic electronics etc.
  • It also proposes to set up 20 greenfield and three brownfield electronic manufacturing cluster
  • The draft includes increasing tax benefits on expenditure incurred on R&D, enhancing rate of duty drawback for electronics sector, reimbursement of state levies and other levies for which input tax credit is not available, allowing duty free import of second-hand capital goods for electronics hardware manufacturing etc.
  • It also proposes cess on select electronic goods resources to promote certain critical sub-sectors of electronic manufacturing such as semiconductor wafer fabrication and display fabrication units

Economy

Fourth Industrial Revolution

What

  • The World Economic Forum (WEF) has announced its new Centre for Fourth Industrial Revolution in India

Where

  • The Centre will be based in Maharashtra.

By

  • It was launched by Prime Minister
  • It will be fourth center as part of WEF’s global network along with San Francisco (US), Tokyo (Japan) and Beijing (China) are already functioning.

Connect to the Centre for Fourth Industrial Revolution

  • The centre will facilitate to bring together government and business leaders to pilot emerging technology policies.
  • It has selected drones, artificial intelligence and blockchain as the first three project areas.
  • The centre will work in collaboration with government on national level to co-design new policy frameworks and protocols for emerging technology alongside leaders from business, academia, start-ups and international organizations.
  • NITI Aayog will coordinate partnership on behalf of government and work of centre among multiple ministries.
  • The first project will focus on expanding access to data to accelerate adoption of AI in socio-economic areas like education, healthcare and agriculture.
  • The second will focus on application of smart contracts to boost productivity and transparency while reducing inefficiency.
  • At state level, Maharashtra Government in collaboration with Centre is planning to undertake a drone mapping operation in the agriculture sector.

Connect to WEF

  • World Economic Forum (WEF) is an international institution founded by Klaus Schwab that works to improve the state of the world through public-private cooperation.
  • It was established in 1971 and is headquartered in Geneva, Switzerland.
  • It serves as independent not-for-profit organization that works closely with other international organizations.

Connect to the Fourth Industrial Revolution (4IR)

  • It is the fourth major industrial era since the initial Industrial Revolution of the 18th century.
  • It is characterized by a fusion of technologies that is blurring the lines between the physical, digital, and biological spheres, collectively referred to as cyber-physical systems.
  • It is marked by emerging technology breakthroughs in a number of fields, including robotics, artificial intelligence, nanotechnology, quantum computing, biotechnology, the Internet of Things, the Industrial Internet of Things (IIoT), fifth-generation wireless technologies (5G), additive manufacturing/3D printing and fully autonomous vehicles.

Agriculture & Farmers Welfare

World Egg Day

  • The Department of Animal Husbandry, Dairying and Fisheries, Government of India organized “World Egg Day”
  • International Egg Commission has declared the second Friday of October every year as World Egg Day.
  • This is celebrated in countries all around the world, and is a unique opportunity to help raise awareness of the nutritional benefits of eggs.
  • India is the third highest producer of eggs in the world, but the per capita availability is around 69 eggs per person per year.
  • Egg is a wholesome, nutritious food with high nutrient density. It is a high value protein and provides a wide variety of other nutrients like vitamins, essential amino acids and minerals etc. crucial for growth and good health.