Daily Current Affairs

Prelims Prominence - September 18, 2018

Report

Future of Jobs’ report by the World Economic Forum (WEF)

Highlights

  • Machines will rule workplace by 2025
  • More than 54% of India’s employees in 12 sectors need reskilling by 2022, says WEF

Enlighten about the report

  • In less than seven years, by 2025, machines are projected to overtake humans in workplace task hours in 12 key industry sectors, according to a ‘Future of Jobs’ report by the World Economic Forum (WEF).
  • Globally, almost half of all companies expect automation to cut their full-time workforce in the next four years; however, new jobs will still lead to a net gain in employment opportunities if sufficient reskilling is done.
  • In India, 54% of employees in these sectors will need reskilling by 2022,

Significant shift

  • Technological changes such as high-speed mobile Internet and cloud technology, artificial intelligence, robots and automation are expected to drive a “significant shift on the frontier between humans and machines when it comes to existing work tasks between 2018 and 2022.”
  • In 2018, humans performed an average of 71% of total task hours across the 12 industries spanning manufacturing, services and high tech.
  • By 2025, that will drop to just 48%, according to the WEF. Machines will perform the remaining 52%.
  • The WEF, therefore, identified the reskilling and upskilling of employees as an urgent imperative.

Enlighten about WEF

  • The World Economic Forum (WEF) is a Swiss non profit foundation, based in Cologny, Geneva, Switzerland. Recognised in 2015 by the Swiss authorities its mission is cited as "committed to improving the state of the world by engaging business, political, academic, and other leaders of society to shape global, regional, and industry agendas".
  • The forum is best known for its annual meeting at the end of January in Davos, a mountain resort in Graubünden, in the eastern Alps region of Switzerland.
  • The meeting brings together some 2,500 top business leaders, international political leaders, economists, celebrities and journalists for up to four days to discuss the most pressing issues facing the world.
  • Often this location alone is used to identify meetings, participation, and participants, with such phrases as "a Davos panel" and "Davos man" being used.

NITI Aayog

NITI Aayog for clear policy on ‘jhum’ cultivation Proposes that land for shifting cultivation be recognised as agricultural land under agro-forestry

  • The report titled, “Mission on Shifting Cultivation: Towards a Transformational Approach”

What

  • A recent NITI Aayog publication on shifting cultivation which is particularly practised in the northeastern States, has recommended that the Ministry of Agriculture should take up a “mission on shifting cultivation” to ensure inter-ministerial convergence between ministries.
  • Central as well as State government departments of forests and environment, agriculture and allied departments often have divergent approaches towards shifting cultivation.
  • The document that calls for policy coherence, said land for shifting cultivation should be recognised as “agricultural land” where farmers practise agro-forestry for the production of food rather than as forestland.

Jhum Cultivation

  • Locally referred to as jhum cultivation, this practice is considered as an important mainstay of food production for a considerable population in northeast India in States like Arunachal Pradesh, Nagaland, Mizoram, Meghalaya, Tripura and Manipur.
  • The publication notes that between 2000 and 2010, the land under shifting cultivation dropped by 70 %.
  • The publication also addresses the issue of food and nutritional security of communities involved in jhum cultivation during transition and transformation by broadening the public distribution system (PDS) to ensure widespread access to cereals and other basic food items.
  • The publication also suggested that shifting cultivation fallows must be legally perceived and categorised as ‘regenerating fallows’ and that credit facilities be extended to those who practise shifting cultivation.

Science & Technology

Odisha man, team builds private satellite 10 cm cube-sized communication satellite will be launched into space by a U.S.-based firm in Nov.

What

  • The eight-member team, including Odisha man Mr. Panda, from Hyderabad-based Exseed Space Private Limited has constructed 10 cm cube-sized communication satellite, which will be launched into space by the United States-based SpaceX in November.

Enlighten about the satellite

  • The small satellite will carry a linear transponder on FM for voice communication.
  • Through private companies like his, the Indian Space Research Organisation (ISRO) now plans to groom space start-ups that build new solutions in communication satellites, applications from remote sensing and rocketry.
  • This satellite will serve the ham or the amateur radio community.
  • As a result, it will be of great help during natural calamities, when conventional communication services get disrupted
  • After the launch, this artificial satellite will be on a polar orbit with two passes over India everyday.

State Specific

In managing water, Surat takes the lead

What

  • Surat’s civic body is setting up state-of-the-art sewage treatment plants (STPs) to ensure every drop of waste water is treated and reused for purposes other than drinking.
  • From March 2019, the Surat Municipal Corporation (SMC) will be supplying 115 MLD (million litres per day) treated water to industries located within the city, in order to meet the entire industrial requirement of water through treated or recycled water.
  • Surat has the largest capacity of tertiary water treatment in the country. In fact, Surat was the first city in the country to start selling recycled water to industries in 2014.

Surat’s cost effective water management system

  • It is most advantageous for its contribution towards reducing the dependency on conventional resources of water, and thus optimal use of the resource.

Recycling technology

  • The civic body’s efforts to create infrastructure for water management is in line with the State government’s policy of promoting the use of recycled water for non-drinking purposes, and reducing dependence on ground water.
  • India is facing its worst water shortage in history, according to a report by the Niti Aayog.
  • Nearly 600 million Indians faced water stress and about 2,00,000 people die every year because of lack of access to safe water.

Finance

Government initiates consolidation – amalgamated entity to be India’s third largest bank First-ever three-way bank amalgamation process commences

What

  • The Alternative Mechanism comprising of its Chairperson, the Union Finance Minister Arun Jaitley with other ministers decided that Bank of Baroda, Vijaya Bank and Dena Bank may consider amalgamation of the three banks.
  • The envisaged amalgamation will be the First-ever three-way consolidation of banks in India, with a combined business of Rs. 14.82 lakh crore, making it India’s Third Largest Bank.
  • The consolidation will help create a strong globally competitive bank with economies of scale and enable realisation of wide-ranging synergies.

Some of the strengths of the envisaged amalgamated entity are—

  • Dena Bank’s strength in MSME will further augment the strength of the other two to position the amalgamated bank for being an MSME Udyamimitra
  • Capital Adequacy Ratio (CRAR) at 12.25% is significantly above the regulatory norm of 10.875%, and stronger amalgamated bank will be better positioned to tap capital markets
  • Larger distribution network will reduce operating and distribution costs with benefits for the amalgamated bank, its customers and their subsidiaries
  • Global network strength of Bank of Baroda will be leveraged to enable customers of Dena Bank and Vijaya Bank to have global access
  • Access improvement through amalgamation of networks
  • Wider range of products and services through leveraging of bank subsidiaries and leveraging of a larger network for offering more value-added non-banking services and products

Culture

National Museum Research Bulletin, published after a gap of 16 years

What

  • The ministry of culture released two important publications of the National Museum Sindhu Ghati Sabhyata:Ek Parichay (Hindi) and the National Museum Research Bulletin Number 10: Special issue
  • The National Museum Research Bulletin has been revived after a long gap of 16 years.

National Museum research bulletin

  • It will help to generate awareness about the activities of National Museum.
  • India is a country of diversity, it is bound together by its strong cultural heritage.
  • New discoveries are continuously taking place about our past and new additions are being made to history which must be brought before the people, especially the youth

The National Museum Research Bulletin No.10:

  • Special issue has a number of research paper that highlight the collection, display and education aspect that the National Museum engages with.
  • The research bulletin is also illustrated by colored photographs, some of which belong to the Reserve collection of the National Museum, hence making the bulletin appealing to a wider audience.

Sindhu Ghati Sabhyata : Ek Parichay

  • It is a Hindi version of An Introduction To Indus Valley Civilization which among the bestsellers at the National Museum.
  • The book is an important contribution to the field as most works on the subject are restricted to the English Language and this version will particularly help the vernacular readers.

Border Management

Rajnath Singh inaugurates smart fencing project along International Border in J&K

What

  • Union Home Minister Shri Rajnath Singh inaugurated two pilot projects of smart fencing along the Indo-Pak International Border in Jammu
  • The first phase of hi-tech ‘smart fencing’ of a 11 km stretch on the International Border (IB)

Enlighten about the smart fencing

  • The Comprehensive Integrated Border Management System (CIBMS) would provide for round-the-clock laser-guided surveillance of the borders
  • The smart fencing project will initially be implemented to cover gaps in the physical fencing. Eventually, this technology will be implemented across the entire border
  • The smart fencing is a web of surveillance, communication and data storage devices.
  • It will enable surveillance during difficult weather conditions and reduce the need for physical patrolling of the borders.
  • It will rely on thermal imaging, infra-red and laser-based intruder alarms to stop infiltration.
  • A total of 2,026 km border was vulnerable. “Digital fencing will make it virtually impossible for terrorists to infiltrate

Enlighten about the working of CIBMS

  • The smart border fencing projects built under the Comprehensive Integrated Border Management System (CIBMS) programme is the first of its kind in the country.
  • The two projects each covering a 5.5 km border stretch along the International Border have got hitech surveillance system that would create an invisible electronic barrier on land, water and even in air and underground and would help the BSF detect and foil infiltration bids in most difficult terrains.
  • The CIBMS is designed to guard stretches where physical surveillance is not possible either due to inhospitable terrain or riverine borders.
  • CIBMS uses a number of different devices for surveillance, communication and data storage.
  • Sensors like Thermal Imager, UGS, Fiber Optical Sensors, Radar, Sonar have been mounted on different platforms like Aerostat, tower, poles etc.
  • A comprehensive integration of such sensors and other technical systems of communication and data processing have been achieved in the CIBMS project.
  • The signals reach the Unified Command and Control Centre where the BSF can monitor the border on real-time basis. The CIBMS enables round-the-clock surveillance on border and under different weather conditions be it in dust storm, fog or rain.

Tourism

The first ever India tourism Mart 2018 inaugurated

What

  • The India Tourism Mart is being organized by the Ministry of Tourism from 16th to 18th September 2018, in partnership with the Federation of Associations in Indian Tourism and Hospitality (FAITH) and with support of State /UT Governments.
  • The function was held in presence of the Secretary, other senior officials of Tourism Ministry and Chairman/members of FAITH and also delegates from India and across the world.

Enlighten about ITM

  • ITM will be an annual event hereafter in line with other International Tourism Marts and it will be held in the month of September.
  • India Tourism Mart (ITM) is being held for the first time and the Tourism industry stakeholders are coming together for such a large scale event with Ministry’s support.
  • FAITH is the apex organization of all the important trade and hospitality associations of the country with all the 10 major Tourist organizations like FHRAI, HAI, IATO being involved in this mega event and India Convention Promotion Board (ICPB) is coordinating the whole event.
  • This is a Business to Business Event.
  • The objective of the event is to create an annual Global Tourism Mart for India in line with major international travel marts being held in countries across the world.
  • The Mart provides a platform for all stakeholders in the tourism and hospitality industries to interact and transact business opportunities.
  • The ITM 2018 has a participation of around 225 hosted international buyers and Media personnel across the world
  • The event also provides an opportunity to the buyers to see the world class tourism facilities available in our country such as Airports,

Sources - PIB ,The Hindu , livemint