Daily Current Affairs

Prelims Prominence - September 27, 2018

Supreme Court Judgements

Aadhaar not mandatory for bank account, mobile number but must for ITR filing Aadhaar card is mandatory for linking PAN for filing ITR, said Supreme Court.

Sneak peak

  • Majority opinion upholds it as a reasonable restriction on privacy Says it fulfils government’s aim to provide dignity to marginalised It’s a unique ID that cannot be duplicated unlike PAN, ration card Upholds the passage of the Aadhaar Act as a Money Bill

Connect to the landmark judgement

  • The Supreme Court upheld the constitutional validity of the Aadhaar scheme but imposed some restrictions on its use.
  • The Supreme Court held that while Aadhaar would remain mandatory for filing of income tax returns (ITR) and allotment of Permanent Account Number (PAN), it would not be mandatory to link Aadhaar to bank accounts and telecom service providers cannot seek its linking of Aadhaar for mobile connections.
  • The top court also held that Aadhaar would not be mandatory for school admissions.
  • It would also not be mandatory examinations conducted by the Central Board of Secondary Examination (CBSE), National Eligibility cum Entrance Test (NEET) for medical entrance and the University Grants Commission (UGC), the court ruled.
  • The top court’s five-judge Constitution bench headed by Chief Justice Dipak Misra said Aadhaar is meant to help benefits reach the marginalised sections of the society and takes into account the dignity of people not only from personal but also from community point of view.
  • The top court said Aadhaar is serving much bigger public interest and Aadhaar means unique and it is better to be unique than being best.

Connect to the highlights from Supreme Court ‘s verdict on Aadhaar:

  • Supreme Court strikes down the Section 57 of Aadhaar Act; as a result, private companies cannot ask for Aadhaar card
  • Aadhaar mandatory for filing of income tax returns (ITR) and allotment of Permanent Account Number (PAN)
  • Aadhaar not mandatory for opening of bank account
  • No mobile company can demand “Aadhaar card”
  • Aadhaar need not be made compulsory for school admissions
  • CBSE, NEET, UGC cannot make Aadhaar mandatory
  • Telecom service providers can’t seek linking of Aadhaar

Defence

Parakram Parv

What

  • To showcase the courage, valour and sacrifice of Armed Forces, ‘Parakram Parv’ is being observed from 28-30 September 2018.
  • The main event is planned in India Gate Lawns, Rajpath, New Delhi. Similarly, 53 locations in 51 cities across the Nation shall be showcasing the events highlighting valour of Indian Armed Forces in general and Special Forces in particular.
  • On Friday, 28 September 2018 Raksha Mantri Smt Nirmala Sitharaman will visit India Gate lawns, New Delhi to commemorate the inauguration of ‘Parakram Parv’

Enact ‘strong law’ to cleanse politics: SC

What

  • The Supreme Court directed political parties to publish online the pending criminal cases of their candidates and urged Parliament to bring a “strong law” to cleanse political parties of leaders facing trial for serious crimes.

SC Statement

  • Rapid criminalisation of politics cannot be arrested by merely disqualifying tainted legislators but should begin by “cleansing” political parties

SC direction regarding this

  • The court said Parliament should frame a law that makes it obligatory for political parties to remove leaders charged with “heinous and grievous” crimes, such as rape, murder and kidnapping, to name only a few, and refuse ticket to offenders in both parliamentary and Assembly polls.
  • The court cannot legislate for Parliament by introducing disqualification to ban candidates facing trial for heinous crimes from contesting elections.
  • The court directed that candidates divulge their criminal past to the Election Commission in “block letters.”
  • Candidates should make a full disclosure of the criminal cases pending against them to the political parties under whose banner they intend to contest the polls.
  • The parties, in turn, should put up the complete details of their candidates on their websites for public consumption.

Unemployment among educated youth at 16%: study Report says gap between growth and jobs widening

What

  • a new study released by Azim Premji University’s Centre for Sustainable Employment says
  • With higher growth rates not having translated into more jobs and increases in productivity failing to spur a commensurate rise in wages
  • What’s needed is to formulate a National Employment Policy that take these trends into account suggested in the report

Connect to the study done

  • The study contends that this divergence between growth and jobs had increased over time.
  • If one looks back at the 1970s and 80s, when GDP growth was around 3-4%, employment growth was about 2%
  • Currently, the ratio of GDP growth to employment growth is less than 0.1.” That means that a 10% increase in GDP results in a less than 1% increase in employment.
  • The study uses government data to show that total employment actually shrank by seven million between 2013 and 2015, and cites private data to posit that an absolute decline has continued in the years since.

In demographic and geographic terms

  • Unemployment has risen to more than 5% overall and the study slices the data to show that in geographic terms, north Indian States are the most severely affected, while in demographic terms, young people with higher education levels suffer an unemployment rate as high as 16%.
  • While wages are rising in almost all sectors, hidden within the positive data is the worrying fact that rural wage growth collapsed in 2014, and has not risen since
  • In the organised manufacturing sector, though the number of jobs has grown, there has also been an increase in the share of contract work, which offers lower wages and less job security, according to the study.

Women participation

  • Women’s participation in the paid workforce is still low, but the situation is unequal across States.
  • In Uttar Pradesh, only 20 women are in paid employment for every 100 men, while that figure jumps to 50 in Tamil Nadu and 70 in Mizoram and Nagaland.

Caste gap

  • With regard to earnings, the caste gap is actually larger than the gender gap.
  • Dalits and Adivasis are over-represented in low-paying occupations, and severely under-represented in higher-paying ones, the study reveals.
  • They earn only 55-56% of upper caste workers’ earnings, the data shows.

SC forms prison reforms panel

What

  • The Supreme Court formed a Committee on Prison Reforms chaired by former apex court judge, Justice Amitava Roy, to examine the various problems plaguing prisons in the country, from overcrowding to lack of legal advice to convicts to issues of remission and parole.
  • The judgment came on a letter from former Chief Justice of India R.C. Lahoti highlighting the overcrowding in prisons, unnatural deaths of prisoners, gross inadequacy of staff and the lack of trained staff.
  • The SC Bench has directed the committee to examine the extent of overcrowding in prisons and correctional homes and recommend remedial measures, including an examination of the functioning of Under Trial Review Committees, availability of legal aid and advice, grant of remission, parole and furlough.
  • The panel would also probe the reasons for violence in prisons and correctional homes and recommend preventive measures.

Report

India ranks 158th in ‘human capital’ score Published in journal The Lancet

What

  • India ranks 158th in the world for its investments in education and health care, according to the first-ever scientific study ranking countries for their levels of investment in human capital.

Connect to the statics of the report

  • The nation is placed behind Sudan (ranked 157th) and ahead of Namibia (ranked 159th) in the list. The U.S. is ranked 27th, while China is at 44th and Pakistan at 164th.
  • South Asian countries ranking below India in this report include Pakistan (164), Bangladesh (161) and Afghanistan (188).
  • Countries in the region that have fared better than India in terms of human capital include Sri Lanka (102), Nepal (156), Bhutan (133) and Maldives (116).
  • The study, published in journal The Lancet, says that India is ranked at 158 out of 195 countries in 2016, an improvement from its position of 162 in 1990.
  • It also shows that India is falling behind in terms of health and education of its workforce, which could potentially have long-term negative effects on the economy.
  • The study is based on analysis of data from government agencies, schools, and health care systems.

Defence

Successful Flight Test of Astra BVR Air-to-Air Missile

What

  • Astra, the indigenously developed Beyond Visual Range Air-to-Air Missile (BVRAAM), was successfully test fired by the Indian Air Force from Su-30 aircraft

Connect to the missile

  • The missile successfully engaged a manoeuvring target with high precision meeting the mission objectives.
  • In the series of trials held to date, Astra has been launched in the complete Su-30 flight envelope.
  • The flight test assumes significance as it was part of the series of final pre-induction trials. Astra is the best in class weapon system and has undergone more than twenty developmental trials.

Sources – PIB ,The Hindu , livemint